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Tokina 16-28mm f/2.8
AT-X PRO FX (2010- )
© 2011 KenRockwell.com. All rights reserved.

Intro   Specs   Performance   Compared   Recommendations

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Tokina 16-28mm f/2.8 AF

Tokina 16-28mm f/2.8 in Nikon mount (no filters, 33.4 oz./946g, about $850). enlarge. The biggest source of support for this free website is when you use these links, especially directly to it in Nikon mount at Adorama or in Nikon mount at Amazon when you get anything, regardless of the country in which you live. Thank you! Ken.

 

Tokina 16-28mm f/2.8 AF

Tokina 16-28mm f/2.8 in Canon EOS mount (no filters, 33.6 oz./952g), about $850). enlarge. The biggest source of support for this free website is when you use these links, especially directly to it in Canon EOS mount at Adorama or in Canon EOS mount at Amazon when you get anything, regardless of the country in which you live. Thank you! Ken.

 

January 2011     More Tokina Reviews   Other brand reviews

Nikon Reviews    Nikon Lenses    Canon Reviews    Canon Lenses

How to Use Ultrawide Lenses

 

Optics:
Mechanics:
Ergonomics: huge, takes no filters
Usefulness:
Availability: new, so hard-to-find
Overall:

 

Ideal Uses: Perfect for use on FX digital as an ultrawide.

Not for: Won't work on manual-focus cameras. Can't use filters, so mostly useless on film. It's foolish to use this on a DX or 1.6x Canon camera; for them, the Tokina 11-16mm, or even a kit lens, is a much smarter idea.

Good: As good optically as Nikon's exotic 14-24mm f/2.8 AF-S, which costs more than twice as much.

Bad: Takes no filters, big and heavy. I prefer the Nikon 16-35mm VR.

 

Introduction       top

Intro   Specs   Performance   Compared   Recommendations

Formats and Versions   Compatibility

adorama

 
B&H Photo - Video - Pro Audio

Ritz Camera

I personally suggest Adorama, Amazon, Ritz, B&H, Calumet and J&R. I can't vouch for ads below.

 

This Tokina 16-28mm f/2.8 is as good optically as Nikon's world-changing 14-24mm f/2.8 of 2007, and this Tokina lens costs less than half as much. This Tokina is also as good optically as Canon's 16-35mm f/2.8 L II.

This Tokina's optical performance is exceeded only by Nikon's 16-35mm f/4 VR, which I prefer to either of the Nikon 14-24mm or this Tokina 16-28mm because the Nikon 16-35mm takes filters, and weighs less than either of the f/2.8 lenses.

Both the Nikon 14-24mm and this Tokina 16-28mm are big, heavy lenses, and neither can use any filters. Filters are critical for photography in difficult conditions, as well as for protection, and neither of these lenses can use any filters of any kind. Poo. The Canon 16-35mm f/2.8 L II cheerfully takes 82mm filters.

I always use filters, especially for prophylaxis and grad filters, while less experienced photographers usually do not understand the importance of filters.

If you're considering the big Nikon 14-24mm, by all means get this Tokina instead if price matters. I'd pay the extra for the Canon 16-35mm f/2.8 L II because it takes filters, and is much smaller and lighter than this Tokina.

 

Formats and Versions       intro      top

This Tokina 16-28mm f/2.8 comes in in both Nikon and Canon EOS mounts. I am addressing the Nikon mount version here; you may make the usual extrapolations for Canon.

This is a full-frame (FX) lens. I will be testing it as such.

It makes no sense to use this beast on the lesser formats; on a D7000 or other small-framer, use any 16-85mm or kit lens for better results with a lot less size and weight and expense.

 

Compatibility       intro     top

Nikon Version

Everything should work perfectly on every digital Nikon, both FX and DX, and even on Nikon's cheapest digitals like the D40, D40x, D60, D3000, D3100 or D5000.

It also should be perfect on decent or recent AF film cameras like the F6, F100, F5, N80 and N75.

The incompatibilities for older or cheaper film cameras are that:

1.) It won't autofocus with the cheapest new AF 35mm cameras like the N55, but if you focus manually, everything else should work great. Even if you lose autofocus, these cameras have in-finder focus confirmation dots to help you.

2.) Late 1980s ~ early 1990s AF cameras like the N90s, N70 and F4 should autofocus just fine, but you'll lose Manual and Aperture-priority since you have no way to set the aperture on the camera or on the lens.

3.) You're really pushing it with the oldest AF cameras like the N2020, N6006 and N8008. You'll have no AF, and confused exposure modes. Manual focus is fine, with electronic focus indications.

4.) Since it has no aperture ring, it's just about useless with manual focus film cameras. It will shoot every shot at its minimum aperture.

See Nikon Lens Compatibility for details with your camera. Read down the "AF-S, AF-I," and "G" columns for this lens. You'll get the least of all the features displayed in all columns, since "G" (gelding) is a deliberate handicap which removes features.

Warning: as a non-Nikon and non-Canon lens, there is never any guarantee that this Tokina lens will always work perfectly with every possible camera. I've only used it on the Nikon D3 and D7000. There is always the potential for it not to work on some models of camera, today or newer models in the future. This is the chance you take with non-Nikon or non-Canon lenses.

 

Tokina 16-28mm f/2.8 AF

Tokina 16-28mm f/2.8 FX. enlarge.

 

Canon Version

The Tokina 16-28mm works fine on my 5D Mark II and my EOS 620 (1987), so that ought to cover it.

 

Specifications        top

Intro   Specs   Performance   Compared   Recommendations

 

Name       specs       top

Tokina calls this the Tokina AT-X 16-28mm F2.8 PRO FX.

     AT-X: Advanced Technology-seX.

     PRO: Tokina's designation for its lenses with its brilliant AF-MF focus clutch.

     FX: Full-frame 35mm.

     IF: Internal focusing.

Tokina claims a "silent DC motor," but that's just a trade name. It most certainly isn't silent.

 

Optics       specs       top

15 elements in 13 groups.

Three of these are aspherical: one in the front, and two in the back.

Three of these are SD super-low dispersion glass, similar to Nikon's ED glass.

Internal focusing.

Multicoated.

 

Coverage        top

35mm film, FX and DX.

 

Angle of View       specs       top

107.1º-76.9º on 35mm and FX.

Less on lesser formats.

 

Diaphragm       specs       top

Diaphragm, Tokina 16-28mm f/2.8 at f/5.6

Tokina 16-28mm f/2.8 at minimum aperture. enlarge.

9 rounded blades. (Tokina's ads erroneously claim only 8.)

Stops down to f/22.

 

Focal Length        top

16-28mm.

When used on a DX camera, it gives angles of view similar to what a 24-42mm lens gives when used on an FX or 35mm camera.

 

Close Focus       specs       top

0.9 feet (0.28m), marked.

 

Maximum Reproduction Ratio       specs       top

1:5.26.

 

Hard Infinity Focus Stop?       specs       top

Sometimes. The sample seen here stopped at infinity at some focal lengths, but can focus slightly beyond at other focal lengths.

I let the AF system focus for infinity.

 

Focus Scale       specs       top

Yes, basic.

 

Depth-of-Field Scale       specs       top

No.

 

Infra-Red Focus Index       specs       top

No.

 

Aperture Ring       specs       top

No.

 

Filter Thread       specs       top

None.

 

Tripod Collar       specs       top

No.

 

Size       specs       top

Tokina specifies 5.25" (133.3mm) long by 3.54 in. (90.0mm) diameter.

 

Weight       specs       top

Nikon version: 33.380 oz. (946.3g), measured.

Canon version: 33.595 oz. (952.35g), measured.

Tokina specifies 33.5 oz. (950g).

 

Hood       specs       top

None, use your hand.

The petals you see in front are to keep things from hitting the glass.

 

Case       specs       top

None.

 

Quality       specs       top

Made in Japan.

Serial numbers hand-written on both box and warranty card.

 

Packaging       specs       top

Box, Tokina 16-28mm f/2.8 AF

Box, Tokina AT-X 16-28mm f/2.8 FX.

Single-wall cardboard box, glossy printed.

Folded corrugated cardboard formers inside. Lens in clear plastic bag inside cardboard.

Paperwork on top of cardboard, just under box cover.

No instruction manual.

 

Introduced       specs       top

2010.

 

Shipping Since       specs       top

Early December 2010.

 

Tokina Product Number       specs       top

Nikon: AT-X 16-28 PRO FX NAF.

Canon: AT-X 16-28 PRO FX EOS.

 

Warranty, USA       specs       top

Three Years.

 

Price, USA       specs       top

$850, December 2010.

 

Performance       top

Intro   Specs   Performance   Compared   Recommendations

Overall   Auto and Manual Focus    Bokeh   Caps    Color    Coma    

Distortion   Ergonomics   Eyeblow   Falloff    Filters   Focus Breathing   

Color Fringes     Mechanics    Sharpness   Sunstars   Survivability

 

Overall      performance      top

Nikon

This Tokina 16-28mm f/2.8 FX ATX is as good as Nikon's best equivalent lens, the 14-24mm f/2.8, sometimes better, for half the price.

Personally, I prefer the Nikon 16-35mm VR to either of the f/2.8 lenses, because it's smaller and lighter, and I need to use filters for protection and for dealing with light.

 

Canon

This Tokina 16-28mm f/2.8 FX ATX is as good optically as Canon's 16-35mm f/2.8 L II, however this Tokina is much bigger and heavier and can't use filters, as the Canon lens can.

 

 

Auto and Manual Focus      performance      top

This Tokina lens has a motor inside to focus itself.

 

AF Speed

Autofocus is about as fast as the Nikon 14-24mm.

The 20mm f/2.8 AF-D is faster than any of these.

 

AF Accuracy

AF is fine.

My Nikon D7000 needed some AF Fine Tuning for best results.

It's not perfect, but close enough.

 

AF Noise

This Tokina has a much noisier AF motor than the Silent Wave Motor of Nikon's lenses.

It is not a Silent Motor as in Canon and Nikon lenses. This Tokina sounds like it has a regular electric motor in it.

 

Manual Focus

Manual focus is swell, just pull the ring towards you and go!

It turns in the correct direction, something Sigma lenses often do not.

 

Bokeh      performance      top

Bokeh is rarely visible with ultrawide lenses, since very few things ever get out-of-focus.

Bokeh is the character of out of focus areas, not simply how far out of focus they are.

If you can see the bokeh, it's pretty bad at f/2.8.

 

Caps      performance      top

Diaphragm, Tokina 16-28mm f/2.8 at f/5.6

Capped Tokina 16-28mm f/2.8. enlarge.

The front cap isn't. The front cap is just a short, soft-plastic Tupperware-like thing that doesn't fully cover the front of the lens. It falls right off.

 

Tokina 16-28mm front cap

Front cap.

I'd save the front and rear caps for posterity, and replace them with a real Nikon rear cap ($8) and a LensCoat Hoodie Small front neoprene cap ($13).

 

Color Rendition      performance      top

Color rendition is somewhat warmer than my NIKKOR lenses and warmer than the Canon 16-35mm f/2.8 L II.

 

Coma      performance      top

There is almost no coma wide-open. Coma would be weird smeared blobs that appear around bright points of light in the corners. See also sagittal coma flare.

 

Distortion      performance      top

The Tokina 16-28mm f/2.8 FX has moderate barrel distortion at 16mm, and no visible distortion from 20mm through 28mm.

For critical use, plug these figures into Photoshop's lens distortion filter. These aren't facts or specifications, they are the results of my research that requires hours of photography and calculations on the resulting data.

 
FX and Film at 3m (10')
16mm
+3.0
20mm
+1.0
24mm
0.0
28mm
-0.5

© 2010 KenRockwell.com. All rights reserved.

 

Ergonomics      performance      top

Tokina 16-28mm f/2.8 AF

Tokina 16-28mm f/2.8 FX. enlarge.

Ergonomics are mostly swell, with the two big gotchas of no way to use filters, and that this is a big, heavy lens.

The metal used for the mount often hangs-up or grinds in my Nikons; it's not a smooth slide-in as with Nikon's lenses.

In AF, turning the big, fat focus ring does nothing, so you can get a good, solid grip on it without affecting AF. Nothing moves on the barrel as it autofocuses.

To get manual focus, simply pull the focus ring towards you, and it clicks into manual focus mode. Now turn the rubber-covered metal focus ring for easy manual focus.

 

Eyeblow       performance     top

As zoom lenses zoom in and out, air pumps in and out, and can blow out of a camera eyepiece.

The Nikon 14-24mm has a lot of eyeblow, while this Tokina has very little. This means sensors and cameras will stay cleaner than with the Nikon lens.

 

Falloff (darkened corners)      performance      top

Falloff on FX is visible wide open, and then it goes away.

It will be even less of an issue on DX (see crop factor).

I've exaggerated this by shooting a gray field and placing these on a gray background.

 

Tokina 16-28mm f/2.8 FX falloff on FX and film, no correction, Nikon.

 
f/2.8
f/4
f/5.6
16mm
20mm
24mm
28mm

© 2010 KenRockwell.com. All rights reserved.

 

 

Filters, Use with      performance      top

Forget it!

There's no reasonable way to attach filters to the front or to the rear.

 

Focus Breathing      performance      top

Of interest mostly to cinematographers focusing back and forth between two subjects, for instance, a couple having a conversation, the image from the Tokina 16-28 2.8 gets slightly smaller as focused more closely.

 

Lateral Color Fringes      performance      top

Nikon

There are no lateral color fringes on the D3 or the D7000, which correct them automatically.

 

Canon

There are only the slightest magenta fringes when shot on the Canon 5D Mark II. Oddly, they are the same at all focal lengths, maybe a bit less at 28mm.

 

Mechanics      performance      top

Tokina 16-28mm f/2.8 AF

Tokina 16-28mm f/2.8, Nikon mount. enlarge.

 

Tokina 16-28mm f/2.8 AF

Tokina 16-28mm f/2.8, Canon mount. enlarge.

This Tokina is a tough, well-made lens. My biggest complaint is the rear mount, which grinds when mounted and unmounted.

 

Front Protective Blades (faux hood)

Heavy plastic.

 

Filter Threads

None.

 

Fore Barrel

Plastic.

 

Focus Ring

Metal; rubber covered.

 

Mid and Aft Barrel Exterior

Plastic.

 

Zoom Ring

Plastic; rubber covered.

 

Internals

Seem like metal.

 

Mount

Light-gold-colored metal.

Sometimes sticky or gritty when mounting, not always smooth like Nikon's lenses.

 

Markings

Paint.

 

Identity Plate

Black and gold debossed metal plate, with clear plastic window for focus scale.

 

Serial Number

Tokina 16-28mm f/2.8 AF

Bottom, Tokina 16-28mm f/2.8 FX. enlarge.

Serial number is printed on a glued-on sticker on the bottom rear of barrel

 

Ass-Gasket (rain seal at mount)

Yes.

 

Noises When Shaken

Lots of clicking, and the front group flops around a bit, too.

 

Made in

Japan.

 

Sharpness      performance      top

Warning 1: Image sharpness depends more on you than your lens.

Warning 2: Lens sharpness doesn't mean much to good photographers.

The Tokina 16-28mm f/2.8 is sharp. It's as sharp as Nikon's 14-24mm f/2.8 G AF-S, which costs more than twice as much, and as sharp as Canon's 16-35mm f/2.8 L II.

It's not as sharp as Nikon's 16-35mm VR; no other SLR zoom lens is, either.

 

Sharpness on a 12MP FX Nikon D3

16mm

The center is always sharp.

The sides are a bit softer at f/2.8, and improve greatly at f/4 and f/5.6, optimum at f/8.

 

20mm

The center is always sharp.

The corners are sharp, but a bit softer at f/2.8. They get even better at f/4 and f/5.6, optimum at f/8.

 

24mm

The center is always sharp, but a bit less contrasty at f/2.8.

The corners are sharp, but a bit softer at f/2.8. They get even better at f/4 and f/5.6, optimum at f/8.

 

28mm

The center is always sharp, but a bit less contrasty at f/2.8.

The corners are sharp, but a bit less contrasty at f/2.8. They get even better at f/4 and f/5.6, optimum at f/8.

 

Sharpness on a 16MP DX Nikon D7000

At larger apertures, there is still some classic "Tokina glow," meaning a sharp image core contained inside a halo of lower contrast.

It's super-sharp stopped down.

 

Sharpness on a 21MP Canon 5D Mark II

It's about the same as Canon's 16-35mm f/2.8 L II: very soft in the corners wide-open at 16mm, improving greatly in the center or with stopping down.

 

Sunstars      performance      top

With its often circular curved 9-bladed diaphragm, this Tokina 16-28 makes muted 18-pointed sunstars, if any at all.

 

Survivability       performance     top

The Tokina 16-28mm f/2.8 seems pretty tough, so long as you don't bash the unprotected glass in the front of the lens.

The AF motor can die, and I'm unsure how much luck you'll have getting it serviced in 20 or 30 years.

 

Compared             top

Intro   Specs   Performance   Compared   Recommendations

Tokina 16-28mm f/2.8 AF

Nikon 20/2.8 AI-s, 14-24mm, 16-35mm and Tokina 16-28mm f/2.8 FX. enlarge.

 

Table of Current for-Nikon Ultrawides

 
Tokina
16-28
Introduced
1984
1989
2007
2010
2010
Maximum Aperture
f/2.8
f/2.8
f/2.8
f/4
f/2.8
Vibration Reduction
no
no
no
Yes
no
Use protection filters?
Yes
Yes
no
Yes
no
Use grad filters?
Yes
Yes
no
Yes
no
Filter Size
62mm
62mm
none
77mm
none
Filter Threads
Metal
plastic
none
plastic
none
Build Quality
Pro
Amateur
Near-pro
Amateur
Near-pro
Barrel
Metal
plastic
Metal and plastic
plastic
plastic
Mount
Metal
Metal
Metal
Metal
Metal
OK on manual-focus cameras?
Yes
Yes
no
no
no
OK on DSLRs?
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Diaphragm Blades
7
7
9
9
9
Focus
Manual
AF-D
AF-S
AF-S
AF
Instant manual-focus override?
Yes
no
Yes
Yes
 
Focus Scale
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Depth-of-field scale
Yes
Yes
no
no
no
Infra-red index
Yes
Yes
no
no
no
Close Focus
0.25m
0.25m
0.28m
0.28m
0.28m
Maximum Repro Ratio
1:8.3
1:8.3
1:6.7
1:4
1:5.26
Weight
259g
255g
1,000g
678g
946g
Made in
Japan
Japan
Japan
Thailand
Japan
Price, 12/2010

 

Table of for-Canon Ultrawides           top

 
Tokina
16-28
Introduced
c. 1989
2003
2001
2007
2010
Maximum Aperture
f/2.8
f/4
f/2.8
f/2.8
f/2.8
Use protection filters?
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
no
Use grad filters?
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
no
Filter Size
72mm
77mm
77mm
82mm
none
Filter Threads  
plastic
Metal
Metal
none
Build Quality
Near-pro
Near-pro
Near-pro
Near-pro
Near-pro
Barrel  
plastic
plastic
plastic
plastic
Mount
Metal
Metal
Metal
Metal
Metal
OK on manual-focus FD cameras?
no
no
no
no
no
OK on DSLRs?
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Diaphragm Blades  
7
7
7
9
Focus
USM
USM
USM
USM
AF
Instant manual-focus override?
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
clutch
Focus Scale
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Depth-of-field scale
Yes
no
no
no
no
Infra-red index
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
no
Close Focus
0.25m
0.28m
0.28m
0.28m
0.28m
Maximum Repro Ratio        
1:5.26
Weight
405g
474g
599g
634g
946g
Made in  
Japan
Japan
Japan
Japan
Price, 01/2011

 

Sharpness Compared: Nikon           top

I compared this Tokina directly against the Nikon 20/2.8 AI-s, Nikon 14-24mm and Nikon 16-35mm VR at the range on a 12MP DX Nikon D3. The Nikon 20/2.8 AI-s is optically identical to the Nikon 20mm f/2.8 AF-D.

As expected, the Nikon 16-35mm VR is superior to the other three. I won't mention it below for the sake of simplicity, thus except at 20mm, I'm only writing about the differences between the Nikon 14-24mm and this Tokina.

 

At 16mm

At f/2.8, the Nikon 14-24mm is a hair sharper in the sides and corners.

At f/4, the Tokina is better throughout most of the frame.

At f/5.6, the Tokina is very slightly better throughout the frame.

At f/8, it's too close to call.

 

At 20mm

At f/2.8, the 20mm f/2.8 AI-s is the softest, and this Tokina is the sharpest; superior to Nikon's exotic 14-24mm.

At f/4, this Tokina is again the best, followed by the Nikon 14-24mm and then the Nikon 20/2.8 AI-s.

At f/5.6, we have the same order, however this Tokina and Nikon 14-24mm are very close.

By f/8, it's too close to call.

 

At 24mm

At f/2.8, the Nikon has a little less resolution than the Tokina, but the Tokina has a little less contrast due to the Tokina glow (veiling haze over a sharper core).

At f/4, the Tokina glow is gone, and this Tokina is superior to the Nikon 14-24mm.

At f/5.6, it's getting closer, and the Tokina is still superior.

At f/8, the Tokina is sharper than the Nikon 14-24mm.

 

Sharpness Compared: Canon           top

I compared this Tokina directly against the Canon 16-35mm f/2.8 L II. They are about the same; which is better varies as you change focal length, aperture and where you look in the field.

 

Distortion Compared: Canon           top

The Tokina has a little less distortion, and more importantly, the Tokina's distortion is simple and easy to correct in Photoshop, while the Canon 16-35mm f/2.8 L II's distortion is complex and will need a more advanced tool, like DxO, to correct completely.

 

Ghosts Compared           top

Here's the same shot on Nikon FX, f/8 and 1/250 at ISO 200:

Tokina

Nikon 14-24

Nikon 16-35

Nikon 20/2.8 AI-s

Even with all the Nano-coating marketing BS of the two AF Nikkors, I don't see any differences great enough to worry about. Change the focal lengths or move the camera, and the ghosts moves around, making different lenses look better or worse.

 

Recommendations       top

Intro   Specs   Performance   Compared   Recommendations

This is easy!

 

Nikon

This Tokina 16-28mm f/2.8 FX is as good as the Nikon 14-24mm f/2.8 G AF-S, for less than half the price. If you were considering the Nikon 14-24mm, but were wavering because of the price, yes, go ahead and get this Tokina.

If you're considering it for Canon, give me a week and I ought to have a read on it versus the Canon ultrawide zooms. I am expecting that this Tokina will be optically superior to any Canon ultrawide zoom, L or otherwise.

Personally, I haven't used my Nikon 14-24mm ever since the superior Nikon 16-35mm VR came out. It's smaller, lighter, takes filters, is sharper, and adds VR, so my 14-24mm is in my box of items to donate to the Salvation Army. This Tokina is the same as the Nikon 14-24mm, so having the Nikon 16-35mm VR, this Tokina doesn't excite me. It would have before 2010, but not any more.

The Nikon 16-35mm VR costs a bit more than this Tokina, but I wouldn't let that stop me. Unlike cameras, you'll easily be using your lenses for the next ten or twenty years on whatever new cameras come out, so a few hundred dollars spent today to get what you really want is always a good idea. Never deny yourself the lenses you want.

Don't worry about 14mm versus 16mm.They are the same thing. I'd worry more about how 35mm can be much more useful than 24mm or 28mm.

I'd pitch Tokina's caps, and replace them with a real Nikon rear cap ($8) and a LensCoat Hoodie small neoprene front cap ($13).

 

Canon

With Canon, our choices aren't so clear.

Canon's 16-35mm f/2.8 L II is a much lighter lens with a broader zoom range in a smaller package that also takes filters.

As a Canon shooter, size, weight and the ability to use filters are very important to me, so I'd pass on this Tokina and save for the Canon 16-35mm II. It is always a good idea to spend what you want on lenses, since they will serve you for years to come.

I'd pitch Tokina's caps, and replace them with a real Canon rear cap ($7) and a LensCoat Hoodie small neoprene front cap ($13).

 

More Information

Tokina.

 

Help me help you         top

I support my growing family through this website, as crazy as it might seem.

The biggest help is when you use any of these links to Adorama, Amazon, eBay, Ritz, Calumet, J&R and ScanCafe when you get anything, regardless of the country in which you live. It costs you nothing, and is this site's, and thus my family's, biggest source of support. These places have the best prices and service, which is why I've used them since before this website existed. I recommend them all personally.

If you find this page as helpful as a book you might have had to buy or a workshop you may have had to take, feel free to help me continue helping everyone.

If you've gotten your gear through one of my links or helped otherwise, you're family. It's great people like you who allow me to keep adding to this site full-time. Thanks!

If you haven't helped yet, please do, and consider helping me with a gift of $5.00.

As this page is copyrighted and formally registered, it is unlawful to make copies, especially in the form of printouts for personal use. If you wish to make a printout for personal use, you are granted one-time permission only if you PayPal me $5.00 per printout or part thereof. Thank you!

 

Thanks for reading!

 

 

Mr. & Mrs. Ken Rockwell, Ryan and Katie.

 

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